Soil profile analysis based on the identification of the bevametric parameters using a cone penetrometer

Submitted: 20 August 2021
Accepted: 10 July 2022
Published: 4 August 2022
Abstract Views: 836
PDF: 214
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


The navigation in deformable soil is related to determining traction and motion resistance via the soil strength. This strength is a function of parameters usually estimated using the bevameter tool. However, this tool is not usually available, hence using another tool called a cone penetrometer. This study developed a new relationship to estimate the bevameter parameters. This relation combines all bevameter parameters; (shear strength and load penetration parameters) with a cone index measurement. This equation is compared to another equation existing in the literature that uses only the load penetration parameters as a function of cone index and then validated using experimental data obtained from waterways experiment station (WES). The result shows that our equation is optimal compared to others existing in the literature. Finally, this equation is used to find all bevametric parameters of the soil inside the greenhouse strawberries.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Andrew S. 1986. Waterways experiment station, 1964. Measuring Soil properties in vehicle mobility research, strength-density relations of an air-dry sand; waterways experiment station TR 3-652, Report 1, Vicksburg, Miss. Oxford: Oxford University, 60.
Bekker M.G. 1969. Introduction to terrain-vehicle systems. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
Dong P., Wang X., Xing H., Liu Y., Zhang M. 2016. Design and control of a tracked robot for search and rescue in nuclear power plant. pp 330-335 in ICARM 2016 - 2016 International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics.
Geotechnical, Canadian. 1991. Literature on cone penetration testing.
Hereid A., Eric A.C., Christian M.H., Aaron D.A. 2016. 3D dynamic walking with underactuated humanoid robots: a direct collocation framework for optimizing hybrid zero dynamics. pp. 1447-54 in Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2016.
Janosi Z. 1959. Prediction of "WES Cone Index" by Means of a stress-strain function of soils. Laughery.
Johnson C.E., Grisso R.D., Nichols T.A. 1983. Shear measurement for agricultural soils - a review. Am. Soc. Agric. Engine. 30:2-5.
Li Y., Yan A.Y., Cheng J., Tian Y., Liu R. 2017. An agile assistant robot integrating operation and rolling locomotion. Industr. Robot 44:114-26.
Livneh M., Noam A.L. 2013. The use of the dynamic cone penetrometer for quality control of compaction operations. Int. J. Engine. Res. Africa 10:49-64.
Ma’Arif A., Rahmaniar W., Vera M.A.M., Nuryono A.A., Majdoubi R., Çakan A. 2021. Artificial potential field algorithm for obstacle avoidance in UAV quadrotor for dynamic environment. pp 184-189 in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communication, Networks and Satellite (COMNETSAT). doi:10.1109/COMNETSAT53002.2021.9530803
Majdoubi R., Masmoudi L. 2021. Eco-design of a mobile agriculture robot based on classical approach and FEM criteria. pp 978-82 in Proceedings - IEEE 2021 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems, ICCCIS 2021.
Majdoubi R., Masmoudi L., Bakhti M., Jabri B. 2021. Torque control oriented modeling of a brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) based on the extended park's transformation. J. Eur. Syst. Automat. 54:165-74.
Majdoubi R., Masmoudi L., Bakhti M., Elharif A., Jabri B. 2020. Parameters estimation of bldc motor based on physical approach and weighted recursive least square algorithm. Int. J. Electr. Computer Engine. (IJECE) 11:133-45.
Majdoubi R., Masmoudi L., Elharif A. 2021. Torque control using metaheuristic optimization for optimal energy consumption of a BLDCM. 2021 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference, IEMTRONICS 2021 - Proceedings.
Majdoubi R., Masmoudi L. Elharif A. 2022. Explicite model of a wheel-soil interaction over a rough terrain using terramechanics low. pp 1-7 in 2022 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS). doi: 10.1109/IEMTRONICS55184.2022.9795754
Mei M., Chang J., Li Y., Li Z., Li X., Lv W. 2019. Comparative study of different methods in vibration-based terrain classification for wheeled robots with shock absorbers. Sensors (Switzerland) 19:5.
Molari G., Mattetti M., Walker M. 2015. Field performance of an agricultural tractor fitted with rubber tracks on a low trafficable soil. J. Agric. Engine. 46:162-6.
Next-Generation. 2018. NATO reference mobility model (NRMM) development. Vol. 323.
Noriyasu A., Kanzaki R. 2017. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems. Arthropod Struct. Develop. 46:723-35.
Nowatzki L.L., Karafiath E.A. 1978. Soil mechanics for off-road vehicle engineering. Trans. Tech Publ., April.
Rios S.A., Fleming A.J., Yong Y.K. 2017. Miniature resonant ambulatory robot. IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 2:337-43.
Rohani B., Baladi G.Y. 1981. Correlation of mobility cone index with fundamental engineering properties of soil: final report. Washington, DC: GPO.
Ruíz A., Blandón A. 2015. Covariance structure analysis on health-related indicators in elderly people at home, focusing on subjective sense of health. Vol. 3.
Station, Waterways Experiment. 1964. Strength-moisture-density relations of fine. Grain soils in vehicle mobility research waterways experiment station TR 3-639, Vicksburg, Miss. Waterways.
Vesic A.S. 1981. Expansion of cavities in infinite soil mass. J. Soil Mechan. Found. Divis. ASCE, Vol 98, SM3. Proc. Paper 8790, March 1972.
Wright D.D., Wright A.J., Boulter T.D., Ashlie A.B., Brian C.S., Zaugg B., Jeff H.P., Ha L., Ta B.T., Randall J.O. 2017. Optimization of transversal phacoemulsification settings in peristaltic mode using a new transversal ultrasound machine. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 43:1202-6.

How to Cite

Majdoubi, R., Masmoudi, L. and Elharif, A. . (2022) “Soil profile analysis based on the identification of the bevametric parameters using a cone penetrometer”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 53(4). doi: 10.4081/jae.2022.1262.