Development and evaluation of sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith extractor
Among the significant problems in the sago processing, the extraction of the starch from its trunk tops the list. The extraction process involves a debarking and rasping process that is very tedious, unsanitary and time consuming that dramatically affects the quality of starch production since the local processor relies mainly on conventional method of extraction. This paper presents the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of sago pith extraction machine. The design concept made was to rasp the sago pith using a rotating rasper without debarking the log to minimize the steps on the extraction process. Four different teeth spacing of the rasper were considered during the testing and replicated three times; 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and no teeth as controlled parameters, respectively. Results revealed that teeth spacing has a significant effect on the performance of the machine such as extraction capacity, extraction efficiency and fineness of rasped pith. Based on average, the highest extraction capacity was recorded at 217.47 kg/h using 3 cm teeth spacing, and the highest extraction efficiency was 96.12% using 2 cm teeth spacing and the finest rasped pith having the lowest fineness modulus of 2.15 was when 1 cm teeth spacing is used. Compared to manual and other existing mechanical rasper accounting the process of debarking, machine’s extraction capacity is higher, more efficient, safer and hygienic. Cost and benefit analysis supports that the machine is profitable and the financial efficiency is high having a 65% rate of return and 1.8 years payback period.
Ave J. B. 1977. Sago in Insular South-East Asia: Historical Aspects and Contemporary Use. In Proceedings 1st International Sago Symposium. Kuching, Malaysia, p21-30.
Bintoro M. 2011. Progress of Sago Research in Indonesia. In Proc. 10th International Sago Symposium, Sago for Food Security, Bio-energy, and Industry from Research to Market. Bogor, Indonesia, pp16-34.
Cecil J.E. 1992. Small-,Medium-and Large-Scale Starch Processing. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 98, Rome, Italy.
Darma 2015. Development of Sago Starch Processing Equipment. Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Japan.
Darma, Istalaksana P. 2011. Traditional Processing of Sago in Papua Province. In Proceedings 10th International Sago Symposium, Sago for food security, Bio-energy, and Industry from Research to Market. Bogor, Indonesia, pp115-116.
Darma, Wang X., Kito K. 2014. Development of Sago Starch Extractor with Stirrer Rotary Blade for Improving Extraction Performance. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET).
Edwards W. 2015. Estimating Farm Machinery Costs. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Iowa, USA. Available from: https://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/crops/html/a3-29.html.
Flach M. 1997. Metroxylon Sagu Rottb. Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatesleben/International Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy, pp. 76.
Flores D.M. 2004. Sago: from forgotten palm to crop par excellence. Conference Proceedings, Crop Science Society of the Philippines Annual Conference. p.14, Davao City, Philippines.
Kamal S.M.M., Mahmud S.N., Hussain S.A., Ahmadun F.R. 2007. Improvement on Sago Flour Processing. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol.4, No. 1, pp.8-14.
Karim A.A., Pei‐Lang Tie A., Manan D.M.A., Zaidul I.S.M. 2008. Starch from the Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Palm Tree—Properties, Prospects, and Challenges as a New Industrial Source for Food and Other Uses. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Institute of Food Technologists. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2008.00042.x
Khurmi, R.S., Gupta, J.K. 2005. A Textbook of Machine Design (S.I. Units). Eurasia Publishing House (pvt.) Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110 055.
Lema K., Morales N.J. 2018. Philippines' slowing GDP growth dims prospect of rate hike. Business News, Thomson Reuters. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-economy-gdp/philippines-slowing-gdp-growth-dims-prospect-of-rate-hike-idUSKCN1ND0PT.
Loreto A.B., Quevedo M.A., Mariscal A.M., Okazaki M., Toyota K. 2006. Improvement of the Traditional Sago Starch Processing in the Philippines through Mechanization. Philippine Root Crop Research and Training Center, Leyte State University, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines.
McClactchey W., Manner H.I., Elevitch C.R. 2006. Metroxylon amicarum, M. paulcoxii, M. sagu, M. salomonense, M. vitiense and M. warburgii (sago palm), Arecaceae (palm family). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry.
Mustafa Kamal M., Baini R., Mohamaddan S., Henry Ragai A.R., Soh Fong L., Abdul Rahman N., Mili N., Taib S.N.L., Othman A.K., Abdullah M.O. 2017. Comparisons of the physicochemical and functional properties of commercially and traditionally processed sago starch, MATEC Web of Conferences. Sarawak, Malaysia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20178703007
Nevada Personal Property Manual 2016-2017. 2017. Nevada Department of Taxation. Division of Local Government Services. Nevada, USA.
Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards 301:2000 (PAES 301:2000). 2000. Engineering Materials - V-belts and Pulleys for Agricultural Machines.
Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standard 303:2000 (PAES 303:2000). 2000. Engineering Materials -Roller Chains and Sprockets for Agricultural Machines.
Ruddle K., Johnson D., Townsend P.K., Rees J.D. 1978. Palm sago: A Tropical Starch from Marginal Lands. Honolulu, Hawaii: Univ. Press of Hawaii.
Santillan J.R. 2013. Sago Project II.3: Mapping Sago Habitats and Sago Suitable Sites Using Optical and Radar Image Analysis and Suitability Relationships. Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry. University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
Singhal R.S. Kennedy J.F., Gopalakrishnan S.M., Kaczmarek A., Knill C.J., Akmar P.F. 2008. Industrial production, processing, and utilization of sago palm-derived products. Carbohydrate polymers v.72 no.1 pp. 1-20. Science Direct. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.07.043
Sta. Maria H. B. 2000. Engineering Economy 3rd Edition. National Bookstore. Philippines.
USAID-Philippines Final Report. 2013. Challenges in Pricing Electric Power Services in Selected ASEAN Countries. Available from: http://www.catif.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Challenges-in-Pricing-Electric-Power-Services.pdf.
- Abstract views: 332
- PDF: 224
- HTML: 0
Copyright (c) 2020 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.