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Spray deposition from a tunnel, air-assisted sprayer was analysed during the whole season, following canopy development in a vertical-shoot-positioned vineyard. Four field tests were performed using hollow-cone, turbulence nozzles between the BBCH 15 (5 leaves unfolded) and BBCH 77 (berries beginning to touch) growth stages, plus an additional test with flat-fan, air-injection nozzles at BBCH 77. The main canopy parameters were assessed, including the canopy height range (0.6 m to 1.4 m), the leaf area index (LAI; 0.15 to 1.60) and the leaf layer index (LLI; 0.69 to 2.74). Total deposition on target (leaves and bunches) increased from 14.8% to 53.9% of volume applied, and was significantly related to the LLI (R² = 0.943); the relevance of such relationship in connection with the leaf wall area model for volume rate adjustment is discussed in the paper. Losses to the ground (1.9% to 8.1% of volume applied), spray recovery rate (31.0% to 67.2%) and losses owing to evaporation of the recycled liquid (0.1% to 3.5%) were also analysed. At BBCH 77, air-injection nozzles did not improve overall deposition in comparison to hollow-cone nozzles, but increased spray recovery (from 31.0% to 36.1%) and reduced (to 0.1%) evaporation of the recycled liquid, so that they may represent an option to avoid an excessive concentration in the tank towards the end of application.
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